What is a Sous Chef? What Does a Sous Chef Do?

January 25, 2024
Sous Chef

If you own or manage a restaurant or kitchen, you know that the role of a sous chef is crucial to the success of your culinary operation. But what exactly is a sous chef, and what does a sous chef do? 

Understanding the complexities of this vital position is essential for any restaurant aiming to excel in its culinary offerings. This comprehensive guide will give you all the insights you need to understand this essential role and help you find the perfect Sous Chef for your restaurant.

What is a Sous Chef?

A sous chef, often seen as the second-in-command in the kitchen hierarchy, is more than just an assistant to the head chef. This role is a blend of culinary expertise, leadership, and operational management. A sous chef not only assists in meal preparation but also plays a crucial role in managing kitchen staff, ensuring food quality, and overseeing the kitchen's day-to-day operations.

What Does Sous Chef Mean?

The term “Sous Chef” originates from the French language, where “sous” means “under.” Hence, a sous chef is literally an “under-chef,” the person who works directly under the head chef or executive chef. This title reflects a position and a level of responsibility and expertise in the culinary hierarchy.

What Does a Sous Chef Do?

A sous chef’s day-to-day responsibilities encompass a wide range of tasks essential for your restaurant's smooth operation. Let’s take an in-depth look at these duties and responsibilities.

1. Preparing Food

A sous chef prepares and cooks food items according to the restaurant’s menu specifications. They ensure that all dishes are consistent in taste and presentation, demonstrating their culinary expertise in every dish they create.

2. Organizing the Kitchen

Maintaining a well-organized kitchen is crucial to the smooth operation of your restaurant. Sous chefs oversee kitchen operations, ensuring that ingredients are properly stocked, and workstations are clean and tidy. This level of organization contributes to the efficiency of the entire culinary team.

3. Supervising Kitchen Staff

Effective leadership is key in the kitchen. Sous chefs supervise the kitchen staff, including line cooks and prep cooks, delegating tasks and ensuring everyone works efficiently. They are instrumental in maintaining the kitchen brigade's smooth operation.

4. Developing Menus

Sous chefs often contribute to menu planning and development, offering their expertise in creating new and innovative dishes. Their culinary creativity can be a significant asset in attracting diners to your restaurant.

5. Controlling Quality and Ensuring Food Safety

Maintaining impeccable food quality and safety standards is non-negotiable. Sous chefs play a crucial role in this aspect, monitoring food temperatures and ensuring proper storage. This commitment to quality ensures your patrons enjoy safe and delicious meals.

6. Ensuring Customer Satisfaction

Collaboration with the front-of-house staff is vital. Sous chefs work closely with servers and managers to address customer feedback and ensure a positive dining experience. Their ability to adapt and make quick changes is invaluable in delivering exceptional service.

7. Solving Problems in High-Pressure Situations

In the fast-paced kitchen environment, unexpected issues can arise at any moment. Sous chefs must be adept at problem-solving and making quick decisions. Their ability to handle high-pressure situations is a testament to their culinary expertise.

8. Leading the Kitchen Team in the Head Chef's Absence

When the head chef is unavailable, the sous chef steps into a leadership role, maintaining the kitchen's functionality and ensuring a seamless dining experience for your guests.

9. Working Closely with Restaurant Management

Sous chefs collaborate with restaurant managers to align culinary operations with overall business objectives, ensuring the kitchen runs efficiently and profitably.

10. Participating Actively in Cooking

Of course, sous chefs are skilled chefs themselves. They actively participate in cooking, showcasing their culinary talents and inspiring the kitchen team.

11. Scheduling Efficiently

Efficiently managing staff schedules to meet the demands of the restaurant is another task they excel at. Ensuring the right team members are present during peak hours is essential for your restaurant's success.

12. Training New Kitchen Staff

Sous chefs play a significant role in training new kitchen staff, passing on their knowledge, and maintaining consistency in food preparation techniques.

13. Maintaining Kitchen Equipment

They are responsible for the maintenance and functionality of kitchen equipment, preventing any unexpected breakdowns that could disrupt operations.

14. Managing Inventory, Product Rotation, and Conducting Menu Tastings

Sous chefs manage inventory, rotate products to maintain freshness, and engage in menu tastings to ensure that each dish meets the restaurant's standards.

In essence, your sous chef is your right-hand person in the kitchen, juggling multiple responsibilities to create a dining experience that leaves a lasting impression on your customers.

What Makes a Good Sous Chef?

A good sous chef possesses unique skills, traits, and qualities that contribute to their effectiveness and success in the culinary world. 

Here are some key attributes:

  • Organization: Strong organizational skills are essential for a sous chef with multiple tasks and responsibilities. They must ensure everything runs smoothly in the kitchen, from ingredient preparation to coordinating with the kitchen team.

  • Stress Management: The kitchen can be a high-stress environment, especially during peak dining hours. A good sous chef remains calm under pressure and can problem-solve effectively. This ability to handle stress ensures that the kitchen continues to function seamlessly, even during the most hectic times.

  • Conflict Resolution: Tensions can arise in any workplace, and the kitchen is no exception. Your sous chef should be adept at resolving conflicts and maintaining a positive work atmosphere. Their ability to mediate and find solutions ensures a harmonious working environment.

  • Team Player: Collaboration is key in any restaurant operation. Your sous chef needs to be a team player, working closely with both the kitchen team and front-of-house staff. Effective communication and cooperation lead to a well-coordinated dining experience for your customers.

  • Attention to Detail: Precision in food preparation and presentation is crucial for culinary excellence. Your sous chef's meticulousness ensures that every dish leaving the kitchen meets the high standards of taste and presentation that your restaurant upholds.

Now, let’s zoom in on the soft skills a sous chef needs to excel in their role…

What Soft Skills Does a Sous Chef Need?

In addition to the technical and culinary skills, sous chefs must possess essential soft skills to thrive in their demanding role:

  • Communication: Effective communication is key to ensuring the kitchen staff understands instructions clearly, and collaboration with the front-of-house staff runs smoothly. Clear communication helps avoid misunderstandings that can slow down service and impact customer satisfaction.

  • Adaptability: Adapting to changing circumstances is essential for a sous chef. Menus evolve, unexpected challenges arise, and customer preferences change. Being flexible and open to adjustments ensures your kitchen can handle any situation.

  • Time Management: Precise time management is critical to maintaining a smooth operation in the kitchen. A sous chef must coordinate tasks to ensure that dishes are prepared and served promptly, upholding your restaurant's reputation for timely service.

  • Creativity: A sous chef often plays a role in menu development. Creative thinking and culinary innovation can set your restaurant apart and excite customers about your offerings. Encourage your sous chef to bring fresh ideas to the table.

  • Leadership: The ability to lead and inspire a team of chefs and kitchen staff is crucial. A sous chef must set an example, maintain a positive working environment, and ensure everyone works cohesively towards their culinary goals.

What are the Qualifications for a Sous Chef?

While formal education is not always mandatory, many sous chefs hold a degree or diploma in culinary arts. Professional qualifications can also include certifications in food safety management and specialized culinary skills. Moreover, a rich background in diverse culinary roles, from line cook to chef de partie, is typically preferred, providing a well-rounded understanding of kitchen operations.

Sous Chef Education and Employment

When considering a sous chef for your restaurant, it's essential to understand the diverse education pathways, certifications, and the broad spectrum of employment opportunities available.

Education Pathways

Education lays the foundation for a successful culinary career. As you seek your ideal sous chef, it’s crucial to know the various paths they might have taken to hone their culinary skills.

Formal Education:

  • Culinary Arts Degree: A Culinary Arts Degree, whether an Associate's or Bachelor's, provides a comprehensive education in cooking techniques, food theory, sanitation, menu planning, and kitchen management. Graduates of these programs often bring a wealth of knowledge and creativity to your kitchen.

  • Culinary Certificate Programs: Shorter culinary certificate programs offer specialized training in areas such as baking, pastry arts, or international cuisine. These programs can be a great fit for sous chefs with a specific skill set.

  • High School Culinary Programs: Some sous chefs start their culinary journey in high school programs that introduce them to basic cooking skills and kitchen operations. While these programs offer a solid foundation, sous chefs who have completed more extensive training may be better equipped for leadership roles.

On-the-Job Training:

  • Entry-Level Kitchen Positions: Many sous chefs climb the culinary ladder by starting in entry-level positions like line cook, prep cook, or dishwasher. This hands-on experience helps them understand kitchen hierarchy and develop essential skills.

  • Apprenticeships: Formalized apprenticeship programs combine practical work experience with classroom instruction under the guidance of an experienced chef. This comprehensive training method can produce well-rounded sous chefs.


Certifications can be valuable indicators of a sous chef's expertise. They demonstrate a commitment to excellence and continuous learning in the culinary field.

  1. American Culinary Federation (ACF) Certifications: Certified Sous Chef (CSC) or Certified Culinarian (CEC) certifications from the ACF showcase advanced skills and in-depth knowledge, making sous chefs with these credentials highly desirable additions to your kitchen.

  2. Regional or Specialty Certifications: Some sous chefs pursue certifications that focus on specific cuisines, dietary restrictions, or food safety practices. These specialized certifications can be advantageous, depending on your restaurant's needs.

Employment Opportunities

Now that you have an understanding of the educational and certification pathways, it's time to explore the wide range of employment opportunities a sous chef can pursue, including:

  • Restaurants: Fine dining, casual dining, hotels, resorts, theme parks, catering companies.

  • Institutions: Hospitals, universities, schools, corporate dining facilities.

  • Personal Chef: Cook for private clients, families, or special events.

  • Food Stylist: Style food for photography, commercials, or film productions.

  • Food Consultant: Develop menus, train staff, or work with food businesses.

What is a Sous Chef’s Career Trajectory?

The career trajectory of a sous chef is diverse and exciting, offering various paths for personal and professional growth. Let's explore some of the avenues a sous chef may pursue:

  1. Sous Chef to Executive Chef: Many sous chefs aspire to become executive chefs, taking on the role of head chef in a restaurant. This transition typically involves gaining more experience, honing leadership skills, and mastering culinary techniques.

  2. Specialization: Some sous chefs specialize in a particular cuisine or culinary style, such as French cuisine, Asian fusion, or pastry arts. Specialization can lead to roles as specialists or consultants in their chosen field.

  3. Restaurant Ownership: Entrepreneurial sous chefs may decide to open their restaurants, realize their culinary vision, and manage their establishments.

  4. Culinary Education: Sharing knowledge and expertise by becoming culinary school instructors or offering cooking classes and workshops.

  5. Food Writing and Media: Sous chefs passionate about writing and communication may transition into food journalism, blogging, or even hosting culinary TV shows.

  6. Consulting and Catering: Providing consultancy services to restaurants and catering companies, helping them improve their culinary offerings and operations.

  7. Corporate Dining: Some sous chefs succeed in the corporate world, managing the culinary operations of large companies, cafeterias, or catering services.

These diverse career options showcase sous chefs' adaptability and potential for growth.

Sous Chef Salary

The average annual salary for a Sous Chef in the United States is approximately $50,943, as reported by Salary.com. However, this figure can vary depending on various factors, including education, certifications, additional skills, and years of experience. Generally, Sous Chef salaries typically range between $43,934 and $59,962 annually.

Other sources, such as ZipRecruiter and Indeed, suggest a slightly higher average salary, with figures around $58,998 and $60,545 per year, respectively. It’s important to note that these are estimates, and actual salaries may differ based on factors like the employer, geographical location, and other relevant considerations.


A sous chef plays a crucial role in the success of any restaurant. Their culinary expertise, leadership skills, and commitment to excellence make them indispensable in the kitchen. By understanding a sous chef's responsibilities, qualifications, and potential career paths, you can make informed decisions when hiring and nurturing talent in your restaurant.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Sous Chefs

Sous chefs play a crucial role in the culinary world, and this FAQ section aims to provide insightful answers to common inquiries about their rank, responsibilities, and the demands of their profession. 

Curious about the significance of the sous chef’s role or the distinctions between a sous chef and a senior chef? Explore these questions and more below.

Is Sous Chef a High Rank?

In the professional kitchen hierarchy, Sous Chef holds a high rank, but it's not the highest. It's the second in command, reporting directly to the Executive Chef (Head Chef).

Sous Chef ranks:

  • Higher than: Line Cooks, Commis Chefs, Kitchen Assistants, Dishwashers.

  • Equal to: Executive Sous Chef (in some kitchens).

  • Lower than: Executive Chef (Head Chef).

What is the Difference Between a Sous Chef and a Senior Chef?

The key difference between a Sous Chef and a Senior Chef lies in their roles and responsibilities within a kitchen. A Sous Chef, ranking second in the kitchen hierarchy, primarily manages the kitchen's overall operations, especially in the absence of the executive chef. This role involves supervising the kitchen team, training new staff, and ensuring the quality of each dish. 

In contrast, a Senior Chef, or Chef de Partie, focuses on a specific menu area, leading a particular station and maintaining consistent, high-quality food production. Both roles are pivotal in large kitchens, where multiple Sous and Senior Chefs may coexist, each with distinct responsibilities.

Is Sous Chef a Stressful Job?

Yes, being a sous chef is often considered a stressful occupation. A CNN Business survey found that 83% of sous chefs experience stress. This stress stems from the need for quick problem-solving, especially when issues arise. The demanding kitchen setting, characterized by heat and limited space, further contributes to this stress, increasing the risk of accidents like burns and slips. Despite these challenges, many find the role gratifying, particularly those passionate about culinary arts.

How Many Hours a Week Does a Sous Chef Work?

A sous chef typically works long hours, often exceeding the 40-hour work week. In many cases, sous chefs can expect to work a minimum of 50 hours per week, but it’s not uncommon for them to work up to 60 hours or more, depending on the demands of the kitchen. 

Their work schedule usually includes nights, weekends, and holidays, reflecting the busy and variable nature of the restaurant industry. The intensity of the job stems from the combination of cooking skills, organizational responsibilities, and leadership roles they must juggle, often under high pressure and in a fast-paced environment​.

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